Water Users/ Stakeholders

The natural flow of water in the VGTB is interrupted by irrigation, domestic and municipal withdrawals and diversions for power generation facilities (MONRE, 2002). Principal consumptive water uses are irrigation and municipal and Industrial supply, while hydropower is the largest single non-consumptive use. Little groundwater is being used so far since most of the domestic and irrigation water is supplied by springs and surface water (MONRE, 2002). Demand for irrigation water is relatively stable, however, only 51% of them is met by the present infrastructure for irrigation (MONRE, 2002), while the demand for domestic water is growing at a rate similar to population growth, of currently about 1.2% per year within the Quang Nam and Da Nang province. Accurate and comprehensive water use information enables the proper assessment, planning and management of water resources. In the study region, accurate water accounting system is not well organized, therefore the actual demand and the consumption is hardly to compute. In 2002, the development and protection planning for water resources for the VGTB was carried out by the Vietnam Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, with an emphasis on the current consumption and the future water demand in 2010. The data set used in this analysis is based on this report and the 2010 water demand from this report reflects the current consumption pattern in the VGTB.
The dominant use sectors, in the basin and regionally, are shown in the figures below. More than 2.2 million people rely on water from the VGTB basin for their daily water needs. In average over 12.54 million m3 of the VGTB basin water are put to use each day. These numbers include an average of 1.68 million m3 of water used for irrigation purposes in the midland and downstream delta part of the basin, which account for approximately 14% of the total amount of water withdrawals (please see maps of the different basin for water use). Uses related to power generation dominate both basin and regional water use patterns. However, which sectors use the water may not be as important as whether or not the water is ultimately returned to the system. For example, hydroelectric power generation is a dominant use in the upper and central region, accounting for 17% of water use (2.06 Mm3). Hydroelectric power generation is non-consumptive and therefore the water is available for downstream usage. Presently there are four large reservoirs used for hydroelectric power production, which includes A Voung, Son Con 1 & 2 and Son Thranh 2. There are other 5 large hydropower plants which are now under construction and shall be in operation within the next two to three years (please see detail in hydropower sections). Compare to other sectors, a very tiny portion of the water is used for domestic and industrial purposes, which accounts for 0.56 Mm3 of the total water withdrawals. The biggest share of the basin accounts for the natural flow, which is 39% and aquaculture consumes about 30% of the total basin water. The Da Nang city provides potable water to approximately 930,000 residents in six districts, Cam Le, Hai Chau, Hoa Vang, Lien Chieu, Ngu Hanh Son and Son Tra. Nearly 80 % of Da Nang city’s population was supplied with water from the Vu Gia River through two water plants with a total capacity of 112,000 m3/day (MONRE, 2002). The residents of Hoi An, which is located in the Quang Nam province, was supplied by water from the Vinh Dien river, a tributary of the Thu Bon river with a capacity of 6000 m3/day. From this water amount approximately 60-70 % is used for domestic use. Nearly 90 % of the rural households in the VGTB have access to clean water (MONRE, 2002). In the VGTB, industrial development is continuously increasing. In order to ensure an ongoing development, a continuous water supply is required. Total industrial demand for 2010 was estimated to be 330,000 m3/day. The total demand was distributed among several industrial zones and the required demand was fulfilled accordingly, which includes Hoa Khuong (24,000 m3/day), small industrial zone in the upstream of Vu Gia (6,000 m3/day), Nong Son and An Hoa (80,000 m3/day), Hoa Khanh, An Diem, Dien Ngoc, Dien Nam, Trang Nhat (180,000 m3/day) and the industrial zone of Dong Thang Bing (20,000 m3/day).

The political system of Viet Nam can be divided into three main systems that of the Communist Party of Viet Nam (CPV), the State and the socio-political organizations (mass organizations). The administrative system is divided into four levels: national, provincial, district and commune which is in a hierarchical order following a top-down interconnection. Nevertheless, on each of the four levels, there is a horizontal interconnection. Vertically seen, the Vietnamese government and the People’s Committees on the different levels (e.g. provincial People’s Committee) are of huge importance. Horizontally seen, institutions like e.g. MOST, MARD, MONRE and MOFA on the national level are important, DOST, DARD, DONRE, DOFA, IMC, Steering Committees, on provincial level, DARD, DONRE and IMEs on district level and on commune level SARD and SONRE. Decision-making processes regarding land-use and climate change in Viet Nam involve various institutions on multiple levels. The leaders of the People’s Committee cooperate strongly with the branch offices of the national ministries. On provincial level these are the departments, on district level the divisions and on commune level the sections of the corresponding ministry.


References and further reading:

Breiman, L. (2001) Random Forests, Machine Learning, 45:5 - 32.

Canty, M. (2010) Image Analysis, Classification, and Change Detection in Remote Sensing, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Chen, Z., Xiaolin, Z., Vogelmann, J.-E., Gao, F., Suming, J. (2011) A simple and effective method for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images, Remote Sensing of Environment 2011, 115, 1053-1064.

Lu, D., Mausel, P., Brondizio, E., Moran, E. (2004) Change detection techniques, International Journal of Remote Sensing 25: 2365 – 2401.

Nielsen, A. (2007) The Regularized Iteratively Reweighted MAD Method for Change Detection in Multi- and Hyperspectral Data, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 16:463 – 478.

USGS (2009) Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook - Chapter 11 – Data Products, Sioux Falls.

Zhu, Z., Woodcock, C. E. (2012) Object-based cloud and cloud shadow detection in Landsat imagery, Remote Sensing of Environment, 118. 83 94.

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