Socioeconomic Development

The total population of the basin adding the number of inhabitants of the four main sub-districts (Dan Makham Tia, Chom Bung, K. Ban Kha, Suan Phung) is 143,375 and according to Biltonen et al. (2003) over 80% of the population can be considered as rural. The rural population is mainly dependent on agricultural production and its related activities. 

The main crops cultivated in the region include pineapple, sugar cane, cassava and others. The production is mainly exported to other regions within the country and only two small factories transform the raw material into a food industry product: canned pineapple.  

Non-agricultural production land uses accounts only 2.5% total area and mainly are lands for mining, rural settlement, transportation. Land use for urban activities is insignificant as the fact of low urbanization in the region. 

Lands for agricultural production distribute in the eastern lower parts and along the large streams. 38% area of basin serves for agricultural production. Sugarcane is planted in the largest areas, approx. 50,000 ha (20% total area). The other major cultivated plants are cassava, pineapple and paddies. Paddy rice is plated in 4,760 ha and mainly is irrigated. In smaller proportion other crops such as corn, tamarind and mango are also cultivated.




References and further reading:

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Ishikawa, R. et al. (2006) Genetic erosion from modern varieties into traditional upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in Northern Thailand, Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53(2): 245-252.

Jantawat, S. (1985) An overview of soil erosion and sedimentation in Thailand, Soil erosion and conservation: 10-14.

Krishna Bahadur, K. C. (2009) Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using remote sensing and GIS: A case of the Upper Nam Wa Watershed, Nan Province, Thailand, Environmental Geology 57(3): 695-705.

Lal, R. (2001) Soil degradation by erosion, Land Degradation and Development 12(6): 519-539.

LDD (2000) Soil Erosion in Thailand. Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and cooperatives.

Meier, G., Zumbroich, T., Roehrig, J. (2013) Hydromorphological assessment as a tool for river basin management: The German field survey method, Journal of Natural Resources and Development 3: 14-26.

Morgan, R. P. C. (2009) Soil Erosion and Conservation, Wiley.

Morgan, R. P. C., Morgan, D. D. V., Finney, H. J. (1984) A predictive model for the assessment of soil erosion risk, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 30(C): 245-253.

Nontananandh , S., Changnoi, B. (2012) Internet GIS, based on USLE modeling, for assessment of soil erosion in Songkhram watershed, Northeastern of Thailand, Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science 46(2): 272-282.

Paiboonsak, S., Chanket, U., Mongkolsawat, C., Yommaraka, B., Wattanakit, N. (2005) Spatial modeling for soil erosion risk in upper Chi basin, Northeast Thailand, 26th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, ACRS 2005 and 2nd Asian Space Conference, ASC, Ha Noi.

Paiboonvorachat, C., Oyana, T. J.  (2011) Land-cover changes and potential impacts on soil erosion in the nan watershed, Thailand, International Journal of Remote Sensing 32(21): 6587-6609.

Pensuk, A., Shrestha, R. P. (2010) GIS application for assessing the effects of land use change on surface runoff and soil erosion in phatthalung watershed, Southern Thailand, 31st Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2010, ACRS 2010, Hanoi.

Plangoen, P., Babel, M. S., Clemente, R. S., Shrestha, S., Tripathi, N. K. (2013) Simulating the impact of future land use and climate change on soil erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand, Sustainability (Switzerland) 5(8): 3244-3274.

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Shrestha, D. P., Suriyaprasit, M., Prachansri, S. (2014) Assessing soil erosion in inaccessible mountainous areas in the tropics: The use of land cover and topographic parameters in a case study in Thailand, Catena 121: 40-52.

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Turkelboom, F., Poesen, J., Trébuil, G. (2008) The multiple land degradation effects caused by land-use intensification in tropical steeplands: A catchment study from northern Thailand, Catena 75(1): 102-116.

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Wischmeier, W. H., Smith, D. D. (1978) Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses - A Guide to Conservation Planning, 1st ed, Agriculture Handbook, ARS & USDA: 69 pp.

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Ziegler, A. D., Giambelluca, T. W., Sutherland, R. A. (2001) Acceleration of Horton overland flow and erosion by footpaths in an upland agricultural watershed in northern Thailand, Geomorphology 41(4): 249-262.

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