Socioeconomic Development


The Blue Nile is home to an estimated population size of 44.6 million, which accounts for 28% of the total population of eastern Nile Basin. The population density varies in the sub-basin. The population size in Ethiopian part of Blue Nile basin from the year 1994 to 2005 was 22.6 million and 30.7 million respectively with a growth rate of 35% population increase during the last ten years. The estimated population of the Blue Nile sub-basin in Sudan was 13.4 million, according to the census in 2004, with average annual growth rate of 2.7%. The projected population in the Nile riparian countries and within the Nile basin are provided in the following figure.

Natural Environment Nile 

References and further reading:

Conway, D. (2000) The climate and hydrology of the Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia, Geographical Journal, 166, 49–62.

Camberlin, P. (2009) Nile Basin Climates, The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use.

NBI (2012) State of the River Nile Basin Report, Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) Publishing, Entebbe, Uganda.

Sutcliffe, J., Parks, Y. P. (1999) The Hydrology of the Nile, IAHS Special Publication no. 5, IAHS Press, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK, p. 33, and 57–87, 1999.

Wolman, M. G., Giegengack, R. F. (2008) The Nile River: Geology, Hydrology, Hydraulic Society, Large Rivers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 471–490. 

UNEP (2013) Adaptation to Climate-change Induced Water Stress in the Nile Basin: A Vulnerability Assessment Report, Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.

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