Research

Water Security Toolbox

Supporting Material for the concept

Background

Water Security emerged as a key goal for water resources management and describes the status of water being available in adequate quality and quantity for humans, ecosystems and for different economic activities. Furthermore it refers to the maintenance of ecosystem services which guarantee the sustainable provision of water and to the control of water related hazards. UN Water (2013 – follow this link) provides a definition of water security which can be useful to derive research themes as well as areas of management interventions. The following figure depicts the main topics related to the concept:

A fundamental requirement to advance in reaching water security within a given socio-ecological system (eg river basins or sub-basins) is to obtain a comprehensive system understanding providing a basic assessment of water availability and status of water resources over space and time and the water demands and use-efficiencies in different sectors. For this end research needs to provide tools to access and to analyze monitoring data from in-situ sources as well as from remote sensing products. Models are needed to understand the dynamics of water supply and demand, to assess intervention options at the technical, socio-economic or policy level and to develop scenarios. Last but not least indicator systems need to be developed providing decision makers basis for evaluating if the set goals are met.

Developing a water security toolbox

The Water Security Toolbox (WAST) will be designed as a platform for a reliable assessment of water availability, water demand, water use efficiency and scenario development; it supports the management of water resources and the implementation of water-related SDGs, particularly in countries with insufficient in-situ data availability.

It will be developed in cooperation with relevant decision makers and disseminated through user specific training packages both in the partner countries as well as e-learning based for a broader audience. After analyzing the decision-making process, the basic structure of the Water Security Toolbox will be developed and subsequently applied to six identified pilot areas. The design will be realized for each pilot application together with a local research partner and a central implementation partner. The local partners will be trained in the technical application and expansion of the toolbox as well as in the use of appropriate media for effective communication of project results.

The access to a variety of new markets offers a great market potential to all involved partners and companies. Innovative concepts developed by the project will be in worldwide demand to help implementing water-related SDGs. Universities can use the research results in the form of scientific publications. Furthermore, MSc and PhD students can carry out their study works in context of the pilot regions. The following figure shows the overall concept of the Water Security Toolbox.

IMplementation in pilot regions

The WAST will be developed for certain pilot river basins together with long term local partners of the ITT. While one local partner is a research institution (typically a university) the other partner is an implementing institution (typically a public authority at or under the responsible ministry). The following maps show the location of pilot basins as well as the related institutions

 

Pilot basins

Local institutions

wast2

 

  • Water Research Center (WRC), University of Khartoum

  • UNESCO Cat2 Center for Water Harvesting

  • Ministry of Water Resources and Electricity

wast3

 

  • Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR)

  • Ministry of Water Irrigation and Energy – Department of Transboundary Water management

Data Sources

The water security toolbox will integrate data from open source (global and regional) data bases with data from local and national monitoring networks. The following list shows a selection of openly available data –mostly based on remote sensing data.

 

Data Source          

 Description

Land Use/ Cover 

Globcover

GlobcoverCoverage: global; time scale: 2004 - 2006 & 2009; format: GeoTIFF, xls & jpg; resolution: 1 km; author: European Space Agency

GLCC

Land Cover Characterization; coverage: global; time scale: 1992-1993; format: ASCII text & gif/jpg; resolution: 1 km;  author: USGS, UNL & EC-JRC

GeoNetwork

Land Use Systems; coverage: global; format: grid/shp; resolution: 9 km; author: FAO

visibleearth

Coverage: global; format: jpg, GeoTIFF & kml; resolution: variable; author: NASA

Agro-MAPS

Agricultural Land-use Statistics; coverage: 134 countries; format: csv/dbf/xml & shp; author: FAO

LP DAAC

Land remote sensing data products; coverage: global; time scale: 1960 - 2014; format: jpg & shp; resolution: variable; author: NASA & USGS

GEO-UNEP

Environmental database; coverage: global; time scale: 1850 - 2015; format: csv/xls/xml & ASCII grid/shp; resolution: variable; author: UN Environmental Program

EEA

Coverage: EU countries; time scale: 2000 - 2006; format: csv/dbf/xml & shp; resolution: 100 m; author: The European Environmental Agency

ALOS-2-ALOS

Coverage: global; time scale: 2007 - 2010 & 2015; format: grid/shp; resolution: 25 m; author: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

MIRCA

Monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas; coverage: global; time scale: 1998 - 2002; format: ASCII grid/shp; resolution: 9 km

SEDAC

Climate, land use, conservation, population,…; coverage: global; time scale: variable; author: SEDAC at Columbia University

Soil 

GeoNetwork

Digitized Soil Maps; coverage: global; format: grid/shp; resolution: 9 km; author: FAO

EuDASM

Coverage: Africa; time scale: 1923 - 1997; format: jpg; resolution: 30 m; author: European Digital Archive of Soil Maps

ISRIC

World Soil Information; coverage: global; format: grid/shp; resolution: 0.5 degree; author: International Soil Reference and Information Centre

USGS_ERP

World Geologic Maps; coverage: global; format: dbf/xml & shp;  resolution: variable; author: USGS

IGME 5000

Geological Maps; coverage: Europe & adjacent areas; format: jpg & shp; resolution: 1/5000000; author: Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany

WorldMap

Digital Soil Maps; coverage: global; format: vector; resolution: 1/5000000; author: The President and Fellows of Harvard College

Precipitation 

TRMM

Precipitation data, coverage: global; time scale: 1998 - 2015; format: map, grids & Microwave Imager data; resolution: daily & hourly; author: NASA

NOAA

Historical weather data; coverage: global; time scale: since 1929; format: txt & graph; resolution: daily, monthly & yearly; author: NOAA/NCDC

EOSDIS

NASA's Earth science data; coverage: global, time scale: past & present; format: grid, jpg, TIFF, netCDF, txt…; resolution: variable; author: USGS

IRI/LDEO

Climate-related data; coverage: global; time scale: variable; format: HTML, jpg/gif/png, netCDF & ASCII; resolution: daily, monthly & seasonal; author: International Research Institute for Climate and Society

RFE 2.0

Precipitation data; coverage: Africa and South Asia; time scale: Dekadal; format: GeoTiff ; resolution: 0.1°; author: USGS FEWS NET

CHIRPS 2.0

Precipitation data; coverage: global ; time scale: daily, pentadal, decadal and monthly; format: Geotiff; resolution: 0.05° ; author: USGS FEWS NET

GPCC 7

Precipitation data; coverage: global; time scale: monthly; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.5°, 1.0o, 2.5o; author: Deutscher Wetterdienst

TAMSAT

Precipitation data; coverage: Africa; time scale: Daily, dekadal (10-day), monthly and seasonal; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.0375°; author: University of Reading

ARC 2.0

Precipitation data; coverage: Africa; time scale: Daily; format: GeoTiff; resolution: 0.1° ; author: NOAA-CPC

CRUTS v3.23

Precipitation data; coverage: Global (land areas); time scale: Monthly; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.5° ; author: Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia

PERSIANN

Precipitation data; coverage: 60oS - 60oN; time scale: 6 hourly and 3 hourly; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.25°; author: CHRS, University of California, Irvine

CMORPH

Precipitation data; coverage: 60oS - 60oN; time scale: 30min, 3hourly and monthly ; format:; resolution: 8 km; author: NOAA-CPC

GLDAS

Precipitation data; coverage: NetCDF; time scale: Hourly, daily and monthly; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.25° & 0.1o; author: NASA

  Evaporation

CGIAR-CSI

Climate data; coverage: global; time scale: variable; format: ARC/INFO Grid; resolution: monthly; author: CGIAR International Research Centers

MOD16

Actual and potential evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: 8-day, monthly, annual; format: GeoTiff; resolution: 1km; author: University of Montana

LSA SAF

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: 30min, daily; format: HDF5; resolution: 3km; author: Eumetsat

SEBS

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: daily; format MAT (Matlab):; resolution: 1km ; author: ITC, University of Twenty

SSEBop

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: monthly; format: ; resolution: 0.009o; author: FEWS/NET
United States Geological Survey (USGS)

GLEAM

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: daily; format: NetCDF; resolution: 0.25o; author: Vrije University, Gent University, European Space Agency

CMRSET

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: monthly; format: MAT (Matlab); resolution: 0.05o; author: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)

ALEXI

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: Some countries in MENA region; time scale: daily; format: GeoTiff; resolution: 3km; author: NASA

EEFLUX

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; format: GeoTiff; resolution: 30m; author: Google Earth Engine

GLDAS NOAH10 Model

Actual evapotranpiration data; coverage: global; time scale: monthly; format:; resolution: 0.25o and 1.0o; provider: NASA

  Runoff

GRDC

Historical river discharges; coverage: global; time scale: since 1919; format: xls, kmz & DOS ASCII; resolution: daily, monthly & yearly; author: Global Runoff Data Centre

ORNL DAAC

Hydroclimatology collections & River discharge database; coverage: global; format: ASCII text; resolution: monthly; author: ORNL DAAC

UNH/GRDC

Runoff data; coverage: global; time scale: 1960's - 1993; format: ARC/INFO ASCII, graph & xls; resolution: monthly/yearly averages; author: UNESCO-IHE

SAGE

Historical river discharge data; coverage: global; time scale: variable; format: ASCII & csv; resolution: monthly & yearly; author: Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment of the University of Winsconsin-Madison

Cryosphere

NSIDC DAAC

Coverage: global; format: ASCII text, HDF, GeoTIFF, shp, ENVI Vector File, kml, jpg…; author: National Snow and Ice Data Center

CDDIS

Coverage: global; time scale: since 1992; format: txt; resolution: hourly, daily, weekly & monthly; author: NASA

PO.DAAC

Coverage: global; format: ASCII text, binary & NetCDF; resolution: monthly; author: NASA

ASF DAAC

Coverage: global; time scale: 1995 - 2012; format: CEOS/GeoTIFF, NetCDF, binary, csv & xml; resolution: monthly & seasonal; author: The Alaska Satellite Facility

LP DAAC

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo; coverage: global; time scale: 2000 - 2015; format: raster; resolution: daily; author: NASA & USGS

CryosphericResearchPortal

Coverage: global; format: txt; resolution: daily, monthly & yearly; author: NASA

TheCrysosphereToday

Sea ice dataset; coverage: global; time scale: since 1870; format: ASCII text, mov, png & graph; resolution: daily & yearly; author: Polar Research Group, University of Illinois

GIOVANNI

Coverage: global; time scale: since 1979; format: GeoTIFF, kmz & png; resolution: daily & monthly; author: NASA

LSA SAF

Snow cover; coverage: 4 regions (Europe, Africa - N_Africa and S_Africa- and South America), author: the EUMETSAT

Other climatic parameters

TuTiempo

Historical weather data; coverage: global; time scale: since 1920; format: HTML & txt; resolution: daily; author: El tiempo en España

IPCC

The climatology database; coverage: global; time scale: 1901 - 2000; format: DOS ASCII/txt/HTML, xls & jpg/png/eps/svg; resolution: monthly & yearly; author: IPCC

ETCCDI

Climate Extreme Indices dataset; coverage: global; time scale: 1951 - 2003; format: NetCDF, grid, txt & exe; resolution: variable; author: ETCCDI/CRD

GOSIC

Coverage: global; format: ASCII & pdf; resolution: variable; author: GCMD & NASA

WorldClim

Climate data; coverage: global; time scale: since 1950; format: GeoTIFF; resolution: current, past and future; author: Robert J. Hijmans, Susan Cameron, and Juan Parra, from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California, Berkeley (USA)

CCKP

Climate change information; coverage: global; time scale: since 1900; format: maps & graph; resolution: monthly & yearly; author: World Bank

IDEO

Multi-hazards dataset; coverage: global; format: ESRI (shp/dbf/ASCII/HTML); author: Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)

Water resources

Aquastat

Climate & water resources data; coverage: global; time scale: since 1958; format: xls, kmz & pdf; resolution: variable; author: FAO

Hydrosheds

Hydrological data; coverage: global; format: raster & vector; resolution: 3 arc-second - 5 minute; author: WWF, USGS, CIAT, TNC, CESR

Water consumption

FAOSTAT

Coverage: global; format: cvs/xls; resolution: information per country and region; author: FAO

Aquastat

Agricultural and water information system; coverage: countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America & the Caribbean; format: HTML text, xls & grid; resolution: information per country and region, author: FAO

Countrystat

Food and agriculture statistics; coverage: some countries in Africa and Asia; format: HTML text, xls & grid; resolution: information per country and region, author: FAO

USCencus

Population Census and Demographic Survey Data; coverage: global; format: HTML text & xls; resolution: information per country and region; author: U.S. Census Bureau

GLiPHA

The Livestock Production and Health Atlas; coverage: global; format: csv; resolution: 1st and 2nd administrative boundaries; author: FAO

UNWATER

Key Water Indicator Portal; coverage: global; format: images & tables; author: UN Water

Aqueduct

Water risk atlas; coverage: global; format: ESRI (shp/dbf/ASCII/HTML); author: World Resources Institute

WaterStat

Water footprint statistics; coverage:global; format: TIFF, xls & shp; author: The Water Footprint Network

Worldwater

Water data; coverage: global; format: gif, xls & pdf; author: the Pacific Institute

Soil moisture

ESA - Soil Moisture CCI

coverage: global; time scale: 1978 - 2014; format: NetCDF; resolution: monthly; author: European Space Agency

HSAF

coverage: global; fromat: NetCDF-4; resolution: 25 km; author: the EUMETSAT Network of Satellite Application Facilities

Topographic

ASTER GDEM

Coverage: global; format: gird; resolution: 30 m; author: the Japanese Miniytry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) & NASA

SRTM DEM

Coverage: global; format: gird; resolution: 90 m & 250 m; author: CGIAR-CSI

GLCF

Coverage: global; format: gird; resolution: 30 m & 90 m; author: CGIAR-CSI

ETOPO1

Coverage: global; format: GeoTIFF/kmz; resolution: 1 arc-minute; author: NOAA

OpenTopography

Coverage: global; format: GeoTIFF/kmz; resolution: 30 m; author: National Science Foundation, Arizona State University

 

SELECTED links to other compilations of publicly available environmental data

 

Selected links to tools which help to analyze and interpret water related data on natural resources

 

Water accounting

GIS

Remote sensing

Statistics, Analytics

R-R models, hydrology

Hydrodynamic Modeling

  • FLO-2D (flood routing model)

Crop water, soil moisture dynamics and pedotransfer

 

References and further reading (grouped by topics):

Water Security

Anil Kumar Misra, Climate change and challenges of water and food security, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2014, Pages 153-165, ISSN 2212-6090.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221260901400020X

Catherine Allan, Jun Xia, Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Climate change and water security: challenges for adaptive water management, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages 625-632, ISSN 1877-3435.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343513001309

Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Margaret Palmer, Keith Richards, Enhancing water security for the benefits of humans and nature — the role of governance, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages 676-684, ISSN 1877-3435.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343513001486

Christina Cook, Karen Bakker, Water security: Debating an emerging paradigm, Global Environmental Change, Volume 22, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 94-102, ISSN 0959-3780.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378011001804

Guo-yu QIU, Jin YIN, Shu Geng, Impact of Climate and Land-Use Changes on Water Security for Agriculture in Northern China, Journal of Integrative Agriculture, Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 144-150, ISSN 2095-3119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(12)60792-5.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1671292712607925)

Makoto Taniguchi, Naoki Masuhara, Kimberly Burnett, Water, energy, and food security in the Asia Pacific region, Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Available online 11 December 2015, ISSN 2214-5818.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214581815001202

M. Ajmal Khan, 14 - Food and Water Security for Dry Regions: A New Paradigm, In Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands, edited by Muhammad Ajmal Khan, Munir Ozturk, Bilquees Gul and Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Academic Press, San Diego, 2016, Pages 231-241, ISBN 9780128018545.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128018545000145

Ralf Ludwig, Roberto Roson, Climate change, water and security in the Mediterranean: Introduction to the special issue, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 543, Part B, 1 February 2016, Pages 847-850, ISSN 0048-9697.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896971530958X

Richard Lawford, Adrian Strauch, David Toll, Balazs Fekete, Douglas Cripe, Earth observations for global water security, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages 633-643, ISSN 1877-3435.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343513001577

Richard Lawford, Janos Bogardi, Sina Marx, Sharad Jain, Claudia Pahl Wostl, Kathrin Knüppe, Claudia Ringler, Felino Lansigan, Francisco Meza, Basin perspectives on the Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages 607-616, ISSN 1877-3435.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187734351300153X

Yong Jiang, China's water security: Current status, emerging challenges and future prospects, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 54, December 2015, Pages 106-125, ISSN 1462-9011,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901115300095

 

Remote sensing applications in Hydrology

A. AghaKouchak, S. Sorooshian, K. Hsu and X. Gao, 5.09 - The Potential of Precipitation Remote Sensing for Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment in Arid Southwestern United States, In Climate Vulnerability, edited by Roger A. Pielke, Academic Press, Oxford, 2013, Pages 141-149, ISBN 9780123847041.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847034005128

Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Akanksha Bhardwaj, F. Javier Martín-Torres, LiDAR remote sensing of the cryosphere: Present applications and future prospects, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 177, May 2016, Pages 125-143, ISSN 0034-4257.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716300591

C. Cammalleri, M.C. Anderson, F. Gao, C.R. Hain, W.P. Kustas, Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scales over rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas using remote sensing data fusion, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Volume 186, 15 March 2014, Pages 1-11, ISSN 0168-1923.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192313002815

Célia Toureiro, Ricardo Serralheiro, Shakib Shahidian, Adélia Sousa, Irrigation management with remote sensing: Evaluating irrigation requirement for maize under Mediterranean climate condition, Agricultural Water Management, Available online 28 February 2016, ISSN 0378-3774.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377416300476

Christopher M.U. Neale et al., Soil water content estimation using a remote sensing based hybrid evapotranspiration modeling approach, Advances in Water Resources, Volume 50, December 2012, Pages 152-161, ISSN 0309-1708.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0309170812002709

Chunqiao Song, Bo Huang, Linghong Ke, Keith S. Richards, Remote sensing of alpine lake water environment changes on the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings: A review, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Volume 92, June 2014, Pages 26-37, ISSN 0924-2716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.03.001

Deepak Kumar, Remote Sensing Based Vegetation Indices Analysis to Improve Water Resources Management in Urban Environment, Aquatic Procedia, Volume 4, 2015, Pages 1374-1380, ISSN 2214-241X.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214241X15001790

George P. Petropoulos, Gareth Ireland, Brian Barrett, Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volumes 83–84, 2015, Pages 36-56, ISSN 1474-7065.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706515000200

Igor Klein, Andreas J. Dietz, Ursula Gessner, Anastassiya Galayeva, Akhan Myrzakhmetov, Claudia Kuenzer, Evaluation of seasonal water body extents in Central Asia over the past 27 years derived from medium-resolution remote sensing data, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Volume 26, February 2014, Pages 335-349, ISSN 0303-2434.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243413000901

Isidro Campos, Jose González-Piqueras, Arnaud Carrara, Julio Villodre, Alfonso Calera, Estimation of total available water in the soil layer by integrating actual evapotranspiration data in a remote sensing-driven soil water balance, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 534, March 2016, Pages 427-439, ISSN 0022-1694. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416000408

J.P. Dedieu, A. Lessard-Fontaine, G. Ravazzani, E. Cremonese, G. Shalpykova, M. Beniston, Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 493, 15 September 2014, Pages 1267-1279, ISSN 0048-9697,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714005889

J.Meghan Salmon, Mark A. Friedl, Steve Frolking, Dominik Wisser, Ellen M. Douglas, Global rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands: A new high resolution map derived from remote sensing, crop inventories and climate data, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Volume 38, June 2015, Pages 321-334, ISSN 0303-2434,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243415000240

Jeffrey S. Reid et al., Observing and understanding the Southeast Asian aerosol system by remote sensing: An initial review and analysis for the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, Atmospheric Research, Volume 122, March 2013, Pages 403-468, ISSN 0169-8095.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512001809

Jeniffer Kinoti Mutiga, Zhongbo Su, Tsahaei Woldai, Using satellite remote sensing to assess evapotranspiration: Case study of the upper Ewaso Ng’iro North Basin, Kenya, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Volume 12, Supplement 1, February 2010, Pages S100-S108, ISSN 0303-2434.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243409000932

Katja Dörnhöfer, Natascha Oppelt, Remote sensing for lake research and monitoring – Recent advances, Ecological Indicators, Volume 64, May 2016, Pages 105-122, ISSN 1470-160X.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X15007141

Marc E. Ridler, Inge Sandholt, Michael Butts, Sara Lerer, Eric Mougin, Franck Timouk, Laurent Kergoat, Henrik Madsen, Calibrating a soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model with remote sensing estimates of surface temperature and soil surface moisture in a semi arid environment, Journal of Hydrology, Volumes 436–437, 2 May 2012, Pages 1-12, ISSN 0022-1694.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169412001862

Mohamed Hassan, Evaporation estimation for Lake Nasser based on remote sensing technology, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2013, Pages 593-604, ISSN 2090-4479.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090447913000117

Prafull Singh, Ankit Gupta, Madhulika Singh, Hydrological inferences from watershed analysis for water resource management using remote sensing and GIS techniques, The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, Volume 17, Issue 2, December 2014, Pages 111-121, ISSN 1110-9823.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110982314000271

Rébecca Filion, Monique Bernier, Claudio Paniconi, Karem Chokmani, Massimo Melis, Antonino Soddu, Manon Talazac, Francois-Xavier Lafortune, Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 543, Part B, 1 February 2016, Pages 862-876, ISSN 0048-9697.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715304113

Stephanie C.J. Palmer, Tiit Kutser, Peter D. Hunter, Remote sensing of inland waters: Challenges, progress and future directions, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 157, February 2015, Pages 1-8, ISSN 0034-4257.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425714003666

Yuting Yang, Songhao Shang, Lei Jiang, Remote sensing temporal and spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and the responses to water management in a large irrigation district of North China, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Volume 164, 15 October 2012, Pages 112-122, ISSN 0168-1923.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192312001888

 

Water indicators (e.g. floods, droughts SDG´s)

Alfred L. de Jager, Jürgen V. Vogt, Analyzing the Combined Drought Indicator (CDI): Demonstration and Analysis of its Evolution during Spring and Summer 2013- 2014, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 4, 2015, Pages 222-231, ISSN 2210-7843, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.03.026

Alessio Domeneghetti, Francesca Carisi, Attilio Castellarin, Armando Brath, Evolution of flood risk over large areas: Quantitative assessment for the Po river, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 527, August 2015, Pages 809-823, ISSN 0022-1694, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.05.043

Alireza Farahmand, Amir AghaKouchak, A generalized framework for deriving nonparametric standardized drought indicators, Advances in Water Resources, Volume 76, February 2015, Pages 140-145, ISSN 0309-1708, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.11.012

Baoqing Zhang, Chansheng He, A modified water demand estimation method for drought identification over arid and semiarid regions, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Available online 5 December 2015, ISSN 0168-1923, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.015

Bright Chisadza, Michael J. Tumbare, Washington R. Nyabeze, Innocent Nhapi, Linkages between local knowledge drought forecasting indicators and scientific drought forecasting parameters in the Limpopo River Basin in Southern Africa, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 12, June 2015, Pages 226-233, ISSN 2212-4209, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.007

G.M. Sechi, A. Sulis, Drought mitigation using operative indicators in complex water systems, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 35, Issues 3–5, 2010, Pages 195-203, ISSN 1474-7065, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2009.12.001

J. Martínez-Fernández, A. González-Zamora, N. Sánchez, A. Gumuzzio, C.M. Herrero-Jiménez, Satellite soil moisture for agricultural drought monitoring: Assessment of the SMOS derived Soil Water Deficit Index, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 177, May 2016, Pages 277-286, ISSN 0034-4257, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.064

J. Martínez-Fernández, A. González-Zamora, N. Sánchez, A. Gumuzzio, A soil water based index as a suitable agricultural drought indicator, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 522, March 2015, Pages 265-273, ISSN 0022-1694, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.051

Jie Zhang, Qiaozhen Mu, Jianxi Huang, Assessing the remotely sensed Drought Severity Index for agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis in North China, Ecological Indicators, Volume 63, April 2016, Pages 296-309, ISSN 1470-160X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.11.062

Jonathan Spinoni, Gustavo Naumann, Jürgen Vogt, Paulo Barbosa, European drought climatologies and trends based on a multi-indicator approach, Global and Planetary Change, Volume 127, April 2015, Pages 50-57, ISSN 0921-8181, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.01.012

Kai-yan Wang, Qiong-fang Li, Yong Yang, Ming Zeng, Peng-cheng Li, Jie-xiang Zhang, Analysis of spatio-temporal evolution of droughts in Luanhe River Basin using different drought indices, Water Science and Engineering, Volume 8, Issue 4, October 2015, Pages 282-290, ISSN 1674-2370, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wse.2015.11.004

Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Hong Chen, Quan-Xi Shao, Yan Li, Flood indicators and their clustering features in Wujiang River, South China, Ecological Engineering, Volume 76, March 2015, Pages 66-74, ISSN 0925-8574.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857414000780

M. Herrera-Pantoja, K.M. Hiscock, Projected impacts of climate change on water availability indicators in a semi-arid region of central Mexico, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 54, December 2015, Pages 81-89, ISSN 1462-9011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.06.020

María Pedro-Monzonís, Abel Solera, Javier Ferrer, Teodoro Estrela, Javier Paredes-Arquiola, A review of water scarcity and drought indexes in water resources planning and management, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 527, August 2015, Pages 482-493, ISSN 0022-1694, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.05.003

Martha C. Anderson, Cornelio A. Zolin, Paulo C. Sentelhas, Christopher R. Hain, Kathryn Semmens, M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Feng Gao, Jason A. Otkin, Robert Tetrault, The Evaporative Stress Index as an indicator of agricultural drought in Brazil: An assessment based on crop yield impacts, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 174, 1 March 2016, Pages 82-99, ISSN 0034-4257, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.11.034

Nadir Ahmed Elagib, Muna M. Elhag, Major climate indicators of ongoing drought in Sudan, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 409, Issues 3–4, 9 November 2011, Pages 612-625, ISSN 0022-1694, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.04

Nayoung Do, Sinkyu Kang, Assessing drought vulnerability using soil moisture-based water use efficiency measurements obtained from multi-sensor satellite data in Northeast Asia dryland regions, Journal of Arid Environments, Volume 105, June 2014, Pages 22-32, ISSN 0140-1963, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2014.02.018

Sorin Ionuţ Dascălu, Mădălina Gothard, Roxana Bojariu, Marius-Victor Birsan, Roxana Cică, Ruxandra Vintilă, Mary-Jeanne Adler, Viorel Chendeș, Rodica-Paula Mic, Drought-related variables over the Bârlad basin (Eastern Romania) under climate change scenarios, CATENA, Volume 141, June 2016, Pages 92-99, ISSN 0341-8162, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.018

Zekâi Şen, Chapter Two - Basic Drought Indicators, In Applied Drought Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation, Elsevier, Boston, 2015, Pages 43-105, ISBN 9780128021767, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802176-7.00002-X

 

Water accounting

Bastiaanssen W., Ha L., Fenn M. 2015. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) for Reporting Water Resources Conditions and Management: A Case Study in the Ca River Basin, Vietnam. Available online at: http://www.wateraccounting.org/upload/files/White%20Paper%20Water%20Accounting%20Winrock.pdf (Accessed on 12.02.2016).

Bastiaanssen W., Karimi P., Rebelo L., Duan Z., Senay G., Muttuwatte L., Smakhtin V. 2014. Earth Observation Based Assessment of the Water Production and Water Consumption of Nile Basin Agro-Ecosystems. Remote Sensing, 6, 10306-10334.

Dost R., Obando E., Bastiaanssen W., Hoogeveen J. 2013. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) in the Awash River Basin. Coping with Water Scarcity – Developing National Water Audits Africa, FAO, Land and Water Division.

Droogers P., Simons G., Bastiaanssen W., Hoogeveen J. 2011. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) in the Okavango River Basin. Land and Water Division (NRL) of FAO Coping with Water Scarcity under project: Developing National Water Audits Africa.

Duan Z. 2014. Estimating Water Balance Components of Lakes and Reservoirs Using Various Open Access Satellite Databases. Ph.D Dissertation, Technische Universiteit Delft. Available online at: http://www.wateraccounting.org/pdf/wa+_phd_theses/zheng_duan_thesis.pdf (Accessed on: 01.02.2016).

FAO 2015. Water accounting through Remote Sensing (WA+) in Helmand River Basin. FAO project TCP /AFG/3402, Analysis on water availability and uses in Afghanistan river basins. Available online at: http://www.wateraccounting.org/pdf/wa+_reports/helmand_wa+report.pdf (Accessed on 12.02.2016).

Karimi P. 2014. Water accounting plus for water resources reporting and river basin planning. PhD. Dissertation. Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands. Available online at: http://www.wateraccounting.org/pdf/wa+ _phd_theses/poolad_karimi_phd_thesis.pdf (Accessed on 11.02.2016).

Karimi P., Bastiaansses W. G., Meldon D. 2013a. Water accounting plus (WA+) – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements, hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 2459-2472.

Karimi P., Bastiaanssen W., Molden D., Cheema M. 2013b. Basin-wide water accounting based on remote sensing data: an application for the Indus Basin. Hydrology and Earth System Science, 17, 2473–2486.

Medema W., B. S. McIntosh, P. J. Jeffrey. 2008. From premise to practice: a critical assessment of integrated water resources management and adaptive management approaches in the water sector. Ecology and Society, 13(2): 29-46.

Molden D. 1997. Accounting for water use and productivity. SWIM Paper 1. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Irrigation Management Institute. Available online at: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/SWIM_Papers/PDFs/SWIM01.PDF (Accessed on 15.02.2016).

Perry C. J. 2007. Efficient irrigation; inefficient communication; flawed recommendations, Irrig. Drainage, 56, 367–378.

Perry C. J., Bucknall J. 2009. Water resource assessment in the Arab world: new analytical tools for new challenges, in: Water in the Arab World: Management Perspective and Innovations, edited by: Jagannathan, N. J., Mohamed, A. S., and Kremer, A., The World Bank, Washington D.C.
Shilpakar L., Bastiaanssen W. G., Meldon D. J. 2011. A remote sensing-based approach for water accounting in the East Rapti River Basin, Nepal Rajendra. Himalayan Journal of Sciences, 7 (9), 15-30.

FaLang translation system by Faboba