Drought related research in tropical catchments of South East Asia
Significant research on drought assessment and characterization has been carried out for Europe since the late 90ies (Tallaksen et. al., 2004; Van Lanen et al., 2004; Van Loon and Van Lanen, 2012) and drought hazard monitoring has been applied especially to arid and semiarid regions of the developed world (NDMC, 2012; UCL, 2011; Wilhite et al., 2000). Droughts in tropical South East Asia, however, so far have been neglected in scientific literature and in international disaster management strategies (UNDP, 2011). Consequently historical drought frequency, drought risk and types are still poorly investigated in South East Asian river basins. According to Adamson and Bird (2010), during the past two decades, economic losses caused by droughts have by far exceeded losses caused by flood disasters in the Mekong region (Adamson and Bird, 2010; Terink et al 2013; Navuth et al, 2007).
Therefore the basin-info research groups address the characterization of typical drought seasons in such regions and their temporal distribution, aims at identifying historical hydrological droughts differentiating their origin (e.g. upstream hydropower development, storage vs. meteorological conditions), analyzing sensitivity of low flows against catchment specific characteristics (catchment storage, compare van Loon and Lahaa, 2015; Stoelzle et al., 2014) and to analyze low flow and saltwater intrusion risk under changing conditions.
The following references deal with drought in the region:
Adamson, P., Bird, J. (2010) The Mekong: a drought-prone tropical environment?, International Journal of Water Resources Development (26), 579–594.
Bachmair, S., Kohn, I., and Stahl, K. (2014) Exploring the link between drought indicators and impacts, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, 7583-7620, doi:10.5194/nhessd-2-7583-2014, 2014.
Booker, J., Howitt, R. Michelsen, A., Young, R. (2012) Economics and the modeling of water resources and policies, Nat. Resour. Model., 25, 1, 168-218.
Byun, H. R., Wilhite, D. A. (1999) Objective quantification of drought severity and duration, Journal of Climate 12, 2747–2756.
Cai, X., McKinney D., Lasdon L. (2003) Integrated Hydrologic-Agronomic-Economic Model for River Basin Management. J. Water Res. Pl. Manag., 129, 4-17.
Coughlan, M. J. (1987) Monitoring drought in Australia, Planning for Drought: Towards a Reduction of Societal Vulnerability, D. A. Wilhite and W. E. and Easterling eds., Westview Press, 131-144.
DONRE (2011) RETA 6470: Managing water in Asia’s river basins: Charting progress and facilitating investment project, financed by the Japan Special Fund, Quang Nam.
DONRE (2012) Assessing the impacts of global climate change to drought risks in Quang Nam, Quang Nam.
European Commission (EC) (2007) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Addressing the challenge of water scarcity and droughts in the European Union, COM 414/2007, European Commission, Brussels.
FAO (2014) FAOSTAT Pakistan country profile, http://faostat.fao.org/CountryProfiles/Country_Profile/Direct.aspx?lang=en&area=165
Firoz, ABM. (2015) Modelling the impact of hydropower development and operation in a highly dynamic tropical central Vietnamese catchment, under preparation.
Gibbs, W. J., Maher, J. V. (1967) Rainfall deciles as drought indicators. In: Bureau of Meteorology Bulletin No. 48, Commonwealth of Australia, Melbourne.
Hannaford, J., Lloyd-Hughes, B., Keef, S., Parryand, C., Prudhomme, C. (2011) Examining the large-scale spatial coherence of European drought using regional indicators of precipitation and streamflow deficit, Journal for Hydrological Processes 25, 1146–1162, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7725.
Hayes, M. J. (1999) Drought Indices, National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), http://www.drought.unl.edu/Planning/Monitoring/ComparisonofIndicesIntro.aspx
Hayes, M., Svoboda, M., Wall, N., Widhalm, M. (2011) The Lincoln Declaration on Drought Indices: Universal Meteorological Drought Index Recommended, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92(4), 485-488. DOI: 10.1175/2010BAMS3103.1.
Hisdal, H., Tallaksen, L. M., Clausen, B., Peters, E., Gustard, A. (2004) Hydrological Drought Characteristics, Tallaksen, L.M. & Lanen, H.A.J., van eds. Hydrological Drought – Processes and Estimation Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater, Developments in Water Science, 48, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V.,139-198.
Hollinger, S. E., Isard, S. A., Welford, M. R. (1993) A new soil moisture drought index for predicting crop yields, Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, American Meteorology Soc., 187–190.
IMHEN (2008) Mapping drought and water deficient level in the South Central Coast and Highlands, Hanoi.
IMHEN (2012) Climate change, sea level rise scenarios for Vietnam, Hanoi.
Jain, S. K., Agarwal, P. K., Singh, V. P. (2007) The Indus Basin, in Hydrology and Water Resources of India.
Lutz, A. F., Immerzeel, W. W., Shrestha, A. B., Bierkens, M. F. P. (2014) Consistent increase in High Asia’s runoff due to increasing glacier melt and precipitation, Nat. Clim. Chang., 4, 587–592, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2237.
McKee, T. B., Doesken, N.J., Kleist, J. (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration of time scales. Presented at the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Am. Meteorol. Soc., 179–186.
McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1995) Drought monitoring with multiple time scales, Presented at the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, Dallas, TX. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 233–236.
Navuth, T. (2007) Drought Management in the Lower Mekong Basin, MRC, Vientiane.
Nguyen, K. (2005) Study research in developing drought forecast system in South Central and the Central Highlands and prevention measures, Ho Chi Minh City.
Nguyen, T. (2006) Research and Development of a climate forecast model for Vietnam based on the global dynamic model, Hanoi.
Nguyen, T. (2007) Research and Development of an early drought forecast and warning technology in Vietnam, Palmer, W. C., 1965, Meteorological Drought, Research Paper No. 45, Office of Climatology U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington.
NDMC (2012) Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UKNDMC, 2012, National Drought Mitigation Center Website, International Early Warning, http://drought.unl.edu/MonitoringTools/InternationalEarlyWarning.aspx (20.07.2012).
Palmer, W. C. (1965) Meteorological Drought. Research Paper No. 45. Office of Climatology U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington.
Palmer, W. C. (1968) Keeping track of crop moisture conditions nationwide: the new crop moisture index.Weatherwise 21, 156–161.
Prudhomme, C., Giuntoli, I., Robinson, E. L., Clark, D. B., Arnell, N. W., Dankers, R., Fekete, B. M., Franssen, W., Gerten, D., Gosling, S. N., Hagemann, S., Hannah, D. M., Kim, H., Masaki, Y., Satoh, Y., Stacke, T., Wada, Y., Wisser, D. (2014) Hydrological droughts in the 21st century, hotspots and uncertainties from a global multimodel ensemble experiment, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, 111(9), 3262–3267.
Siddiqi, A., Wescoat, J. L., Humair, S., Afridi, K. (2012) An empirical analysis of the hydropower portfolio in Pakistan, Energy Policy, 50, 228–241, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.06.063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.06.063
Shafer, B. A., Dezman, L. E. (1982) Development of a Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI) to assess the severity of drought conditions in snowpack runoff areas. Preprints, Western Snow Conference, Colorado State University, 164-175.
Tallaksen, L. M., Madsen, H., Hisdal, H. (2004) Frequency Analysis, Tallaksen, L. M., van Lanen, H. A. J., eds. Hydrological Drought – Processes and Estimation Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater, Developments in Water Science, 48, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V.
Tatli , H. Türkes, M. (2011) Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of the palmer drought indices, Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151, 981–991.
Terink, W., Immerzeel, W. W., Droogers, P. (2011) Drought Monitoring and Impact Assessment in the Mekong River Basin, FutureWater report 104. Prepared for Mekong River Commission, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Terink, W., Lutz, A. F., Simons, G. W. H., Immerzeel, W. W., Droogers, P. (2015) SPHY v2.0 : Spatial Processes in Hydrology, Geosci. Model Dev., (under rev.).
Trenberth, K. E., Dai, A., van der Schrier, G., Jones, P. D., Barichivich, J., Briffa, K. R., Sheffield, J. (2014) Global warming and changes in drought, Nature Clim. Change 4 (1), 17–22.
Trinh Quoc, V. (2014) PhD Thesis: Estimating the impact of climate change induced saltwater intrusion on agriculture in estuaries-the case of Vu Gia Thu Bon, Vietnam, University of Bochum/Cologne University of Applied Sciences, ITT.
Trinh Quoc, V., Stolpe, H., Ribbe, L., Nauditt, A. (2015) Impact of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion in the Vu Gia Thu Bon estuary, Central Vietnam, under preparation to be submitted to coastal processes.
UCL (2012) Global Drought Monitor, University College London, Department of Space and Climate Physics, Aon Benfield, UCL Hazard Research Centre.
UNDP (2011) Mainstreaming Drought Risk Management - a primer, UNON Printshop, Nairobi United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON), Publishing Services Section, ISO 14001:2004-certified/March 2011.
UN-ISDR (2005) The Hyogo Framework of Action, Geneva: UN-ISDR, http://www.unisdr.org/2005/wcdr/intergover/official-doc/L-docs/Hyogo-framework-for-action-english.pdf (15.07.2012).
UN-ISDR (2009) Drought Risk Reduction, Framework and Practices: Contributing to the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action. Geneva: UN-ISDR.
Van Loon, A. F., et al. (2011). Propagation of drought through the hydrological cycle, WATCH Tech. Rep. 31, Wageningen Univ., Netherlands. [Available at http://www.eu-watch.org/publications/technical-reports].
Van Loon, A. F., Van Lanen, H. A. J. (2012) A process-based typology of hydrological drought, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16(7), 1915–1946, doi:10.5194/hess-16–1915-2012.
Van Loon, A. F., Van Lanen, H. A. J. (2013) Making the distinction between water scarcity and drought using an observation-modeling framework, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 49, 1483–1502, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20147, 2013.
Van Loon, A. F., Laaha, G., (2015) Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.059
Vogt, J. V., Safriel, U., Maltitz, G. v., Sokona, Y., Zougmore, R., Bastin, G., Hill, G. (2011) Monitoring and Assessment of Land degradation and desertification: towards new conceptual and integrated approaches, Land Degradation and Development, 22: 150–165 (2011).
Wanders, N., VanLanen, H., Van Loon, A. (2010) WATCH Technical Report No. 24, Indicators for Drought Characterization on a Global Scale.
Wanders, N., Wada, Y. (2014) Human and climate impacts on the 21st century hydrological drought, J. Hydrol., doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.047
Ward, F. (2014) Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought, J. Hydrol., 508, 114-127.
Wilhite, D. A., Sivakumar, M. V. K., Wood, D. A., Svoboda, M. D. (2000) Early Warning Systems for Drought Preparedness and Drought Management, Proceedings of an Expert Group Meeting held in Lisbon, Portugal, 5-7 September, Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.
Wilhite, D. A., Svoboda, M. D. (2000) Drought Early Warning Systems in the Context of Drought Preparedness and Mitigation, Early Warning Systems for Drought Preparedness and Management, Proceedings of an Expert Group Meeting, 5-7 September 2000, Lisbon, Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.
Zander, F., Kralisch S., Busch C., Flügel, W.-A. (2011) RBIS – An Environmental Information System for Integrated Landscape Management. In: Environmental Software Systems, Frameworks of Environment. 9th IFIP WG 5.11 International Symposium, ISESS 2011, edited by JiříHřebíček, 349-356, Brno, CZE.