The extratropical Central Andean region shows a high vulnerability to climate change impacts such as temperature increase and hydro-meteorological hazards. Snow-melting and shrinking of glaciers have been observed recently as a consequence. Climate change impacts are a major concern to a large part of the population living in these regions where the water supply depends on the glaciered Andean mountains. Farmers are highly affected by the water scarcity which interferes with the agricultural and domestic production. Therefore, strategies in the extratropical Central Andes have to be tackled considering the sensitivity of the varying ecosystem components against droughts and floods. Adequate ecosystem-based adaptation measures have to be developed and the most appropriate and cost effective strategies have to be selected for the benefit of the Andean societies and the scientific community.